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Some modifications and amendments are allowed in trademarks this can be pre-registration or post registration. These modifications could be like change in registered address, Change in the Name of company, Change in the partnership, etc.
Is there any modification required on your trademark application, assign your work to us. At Alonika.in we have a team of qualified Lawyer’s well versed and experienced to perform the work. Get the amendment application filed very same day.
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- Drafting of documents (POA)
- Drafting of application for modification
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- Updates on status of modification
- Application no
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- Other details as per modification required.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is Trademark Search important?
Trademark search is very important, as most of the trademark applications so filed got stuck due to the Objection raised by the registrar either on the grounds of existing similar name or claiming a generic name. Search plays an important role in getting the trademark accepted in an early phase.
What is Trademark Classification?
Goods and Services under trademarks are divided into 45 classes. Class 1 to 34 is defined for the products / goods and class 35 to 45 is defined for services. Classification helps in ascertaining the appropriate class for goods or service to be adopted for trademark filing.
Can a Trademark be filed in many classes?
Yes, a trademark can be filed in all the classes but this is not advisable until unless the applicant is actually not working in any of the good or service of the respective trademark class.
Does Trademark Registration provides monopoly in a trademark class?
Yes, Trademark Registration provides monopoly, but with some restrictions and not for the entire class. A Trademark only provides monopoly rights on the goods / service description stated in the application only, no rights will be given on other goods / services belongs to the same class. This was settled in many cases by The Supreme Court.
Who can file a Trademark?
A trademark can be filed by the applicant himself, or by a Registered Trademark Attorney or by a Registered Trademark Agent or by a practicing Company Secretary.
Who should be appointed for Trademark filing?
Appointing an Attorney is always advisable and recommended; we also assign the Trademark Filing to Attorneys. Filing done by applicant is never advisable; an applicant generally is not familiar with the provisions of the act and other requirements. And We personally don’t recommend to get it filed by Registered Trademark Agents and Company Secretary as they can file the Trademarks and can manage the other works with the registry and tribunals but they can’t protect and take parts in legal proceedings (Sending notices or representing the matters in the courts) in case of any infringement or legal issues as they can’t practice as an Attorney.
I have a Registered trademark in a class can I use priority claim in other class?
No, a registered trademark gives right only with the respective class in which it was filed and registered. Priority can only be claimed in other class if there are sufficient evidences to justify the claim of priority so raised.
Products / Services falling in multiple class, should it be filed for all the relevant classes or should be filed in a particular class?
This basically depends upon the applicant and his futuristic vision of working. If the applicant’s business is a start, we advise him to select the most appropriate class for his products or services and file the trademark in that relevant class first, as for startups filing trademarks in many classes could be an expensive matter. And if the applicant is well established in the market, we recommend for trademark filing in all the relevant classes.
Trademark remains valid for life long?
No, Trademark once registered, to be renewed time to time; failing in renewal will lead to removal of Trademark.
Can an expired Trademark be renewed or restored?
Yes, an expired trademark can be renewed. Only if renewal application is filed within 6 months of expiry accompanied with renewal fee and surcharge. Restoration of Expired Trademark application is also allowed if the application for restoration is filed within next 6 months after the grace period of 6 months from expiry, subject to the discretionary power of registrar.
Any person is using similar Trademark, is there any option available?
Using of similar Trademark is termed as infringement of Trademark. There are legal options available to protect the Trademark infringed by others.
I am selling garments online, which class of trademark I should apply?
Online business is in class 35 and garments are in class 25, we suggest for filing the trademark applications in both the classes. If this feels an expensive matter then go for class 25 first and later on for class 35. As class 35 will protect only the online business not the relevant product, so one can’t claim any rights on the articles falling in other class. For example, A is selling garments online in a Trademark XYZ filed in class 35 and B is selling garments offline and online (from other portals) having trademark XYZ, here A cannot restrict B to use the trademark XYZ for garments as A having right only for selling goods online but not on the goods itself, and B can restrict A if he uses the Trademark XYZ on garments.
Is the Registration Certificate generated online valid for Legal purpose or filing trademarks abroad?
No, the Registration Certificate generated is not valid for legal purpose or filing trademarks abroad. A request should be made to the registrar for grant of Legal Certificate accompanied with respective fee for legal certificate.
What should be filed first Word mark or Device Mark?
Word mark and Device mark are not the same, as protection under the both are different. A Word Mark protects the WORD only whereas a Device Mark protects the Device as a whole. These days generally people comes to us with a view that, by protecting a Device Mark containing the Word and other artistic things, colour, images etc. also have protections on the Word and the other contents of the device separately, which is not correct. A Device mark provides protection on the device as a whole, one can’t raise any claim on the parts or elements of the Device Mark separately, until they have filed different trademark applications for every part of the Device. In simple terms one can’t claim any specific right on every element of the device until they have trademarks for every element separately. This was settled in so many cases; some of the famous cases are:
- Uttam Chemical Udhyog v Shri Rishi Lal Gupta trading as Rishi Soap Works, 1981 PTC 137(Del).
- Registrar of Trade marks v Ashok Chandra Rakhit Ltd. AIR 1955 SC 558 : (1955) 2 SCR 252.
- Three-N-Products Pvt Ltd v Emami Limited, 2009 (41) PTC 689 (Cal).
What is trademark registration?
The Trademark Registration is the registering of visual symbols which can be a word, name, device, label, digits, etc. Trademark registration in India helps the candidate or the trademark owner to safeguard his logo or trademark. Trademark registration also helps to evade duplication within the trademarks.
How to get Trademark registration?
The easiest way to get trademark registration done, involves the first step as “selecting a name then doing a trademark search, after that filing an application for the trademark registration”. Then filing the required documents like the name of the trademark or address. Then the application is examined after that the trademark is published in the Indian Trade Mark Journals. Lastly, the issuance of the trademark registration certificate.
How much it cost to get a trademark registration?
Trademark registration is starting from Rs. 1000/- + Govt. fees basically starting from Rs. 5500/- only.
What is trademark Infringement?
In case one uses a registered trademark without the authorization of the trademark owner, then it is considered trademark infringement. It is an offense under the Trade Marks Act,1999. Under this, the registered trademark owner can issue a notice to the infringer to stop the use of the mark. Even after this, if the infringement is continued, then action to cease all goods that violate the Trade Marks Act could be initiated. And the claim for the damages can be initiated.
Is a trademark registration valid for all types of goods and services?
Trademark registrations are unique to the goods or services they describe. The registrations can be product or service-specific. Also, they are made under a Class of goods or services it signifies. Hence, be valid for the class of goods or services it describes only. The Supreme court of India had defined that “Monopoly” cannot be enjoyed over entire class of goods it was pronounced in its judgment in the case of M/S. Nandhini Deluxe vs. Karnataka Co- Operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd held \'that the proprietor of a trade mark cannot enjoy monopoly over the entire class of goods particularly when he is not using the said trade mark in respect of certain goods falling under the same class.\'
What is the validity of trademark registration?
A registered trademark is valid for 10 years from the date of trademark application filing, which is to be renewed prior expiry of trademark registration.
Documents and details required for trademark registration in India?
- Some common details for every type of applicant is as follow:
- Brand name
- Product details
- Using Date details
- Registration / Incorporation certificate of firm
- For Individuals / Proprietor:
- Government issued I’d.
- For Company / Partnership / LLP/ Society / Trust / NGO etc.
- Resolution Passed in meeting.
- KYC of authorized person as per resolution.
- Certificate of registration under MSME (if registered).
- Certificate of registration under Startup (if registered).
- KYC of all the Directors / Partners / Members / Trustee.
I have a registered company for my company name do I still need trademark registration?
Company or domain registration will not protect your brand identity. To protect your company’s identity, you need to get trademark registration.
When I can use symbol R or TM?
Symbol “TM” can be applied after filing of a trademark application. After registering a trademark a symbol “R” must be used. The ® symbol may only be used in connection with the goods and services mentioned on the registration certificate.
Will my trademark registration be valid worldwide?
No, Trademark registration is valid in territorial limits of India. But a registered trademark can be used as a base for trademark registration in other countries.
What is trademark objection?
The term ‘objected’ implies that the particular trademark application has been examined and a report generated as well, laying down the objections against the registrability of the mark. Examination of a trademark means that the mark would be checked to see if it complies with the relevant provisions of the Trademarks Act and is fit to be registered. In general, the two main provisions of the Trademarks Act which come into play at this stage are Section 9 and 11 of the Act (called absolute and relative objections respectively). These Sections, broadly speaking, lay down that a trademark should either be inherently distinctive (and not similar to any earlier existing mark) or should have ‘acquired distinctiveness’ through its usage. Hence the Examiner would analyze the trademark in question (primarily in light of the two aforementioned sections) and generate a report mentioning the objections if any and also list similar/identical third party marks if any, during which the status would reflect “ objected ”
Why is Trademark status shown as Formality Check Fail?
This is a very simple and preliminary stage wherein the Trademark Office asserts that all the formalities required to be observed while filing a trademark application have successfully been observed by the applicant and the application would soon proceed to the next level. The formalities here might imply submission of appropriate information or documents like Power of Attorney, User date affidavit or any other required document. If the status shows “formality check fail,” it naturally implies that there is some deficiency in observing the formalities, in which case, it is better to check with the Trademark Office as soon as possible to determine what is required, to fulfill the deficiency and proceed to the next level. There is no prescribed time frame in any of the above scenario. Where the status is “formality check pass,” one has to await the natural progress to the next stage which, currently, is seldom delayed.
Trademark application status shown as “SENT BACK TO EDP”
EDP, as most of you would be aware, stands for ‘Electronic data Processing.’ In the recent years, the Trademark Office has been striving hard to go the techie way with digitization of records aiming at transparency and automation. Hence when applications are filed, the Trademark Office, broadly speaking, would, sort all applications received, sent them to the EDP section for scanning, uploading and data entry after which the actual legal procedure (like examination, advertisement) begins. Hence when a particular application is still with the EDP section, this status might be reflected in the Indian Trademark Office website. Many a time, the Trademark Office realizes that there are certain errors in data entry/processing with respect to a particular application and in such a case, the particular application finds its way back to the EDP section and the online status of that application reflects “sent back to EDP.” There is no set time frame during which an application lies with the EDP section. On the same note, it is not an alarming status wherein the applicant of that particular application is bound to take some action, for, once the data entry/processing is completed, the application automatically progresses to the next step, examination. But at times, an application might remain stagnated with EDP for a considerable time and in such cases, the applicant might, approach the Trademark Office to check on it. But such a need seldom arises these days with the Trademark Office being quite efficient in its operations.
What does it mean when my trademark status shown as “MARKED FOR EXAM”
The term ‘marked for exam’ implies that a trademark application has been taken up for examination or is due to be examined shortly by the Trademark Office. The term “examination” per se means that the particular trademark would be examined to see if it satisfies and overcomes the objections enunciated in the Indian Trade Marks Act, 1999 (what we call “absolute and relative grounds” under Section 9 and 11), only after which it proceeds to advertisement and ultimately registration.
What does it mean when my trademark status shown as “OPPOSED”
The term “opposed” means that a third party, has found the mark objectionable primarily in light of Section 9 or 11 or both (and any other provisions of the Trademarks Act), intimates the same in writing to the Trademark Office and requests for its refusal. Section 21 of the Trademarks Act 1999 clearly elucidates about opposition. Simply put, a mark predominantly gets opposed either owing to its similarity with an existing mark or due to alleged non-distinctiveness or both. Once the mark gets advertised, it is open to opposition for a period of four months from the date of advertisement, during which any third party can oppose the mark on the grounds mentioned above. It is important to note that any third party wishing to oppose a mark should intimate the same in writing (through what is called a ‘notice of opposition’) to the Trademark Office within the four month period after which the status of the mark is changed from advertised to “opposed.”
What if my Trademark is taken but in different Trademark class
Trademark Registration protects the brand name for the respective products and services only. Any mark cannot enjoy the monopoly over the entire class, so there is nothing to worry about it you can have trademark registration for the same until the mark is well known (like Pepsi, MRF)
What is Trademark assignment?
Assignment of a trademark occurs when the ownership of such mark as such, is transferred from one party to another whether along with or without the goodwill of the business. In case of a registered Trademark, such assignment is required to be recorded in the Register of trade marks. A mark may be assigned or transferred to another entity in any of the following manners:
- Complete Assignment to another entity- The owner transfers all its rights with respect to a mark to another entity, including the transfer of the rights such as right to further transfer, to earn royalties, etc. (E.g. X, the proprietor of a brand, sells his mark completely through an agreement to Y. After this X does not retain any rights with respect to the brand)
- Assignment to another entity but with respect to only some of the goods/ services- The transfer of ownership is restricted to specific products or services only. (E.g. P, the proprietor of a brand used for jams and jellies and dairy products. P assigns the rights in the brand with respect to only dairy products to Q and retains the rights in the brand with respect to jams and jellies.) This is called partial assignment.
- Assignment with goodwill- Such assignment is where the rights and value of a trademark as associated with the product is also transferred to another entity.(E.g. P, the proprietor of a brand \"Shudh\" relating to dairy products, sells his brand to Q such that Q will be able to use the brand \"Shudh\" with respect to dairy products as well as any other products it manufactures.)
- Assignment without goodwill- Such assignment also referred to as gross assignment, is where the owner of the brand restricts the right of the buyer and does not allow him to use such brand for the products being used by the original owner. Thus, the goodwill attached to such brand with respect to the product already being sold under such brand, is not transferred to the buyer. (E.g. P, the proprietor of a brand \"Shudh\" relating to dairy products, sells his brand to Q such that Q will not be able to use the mark \"Shudh\" with respect to dairy products but can use this brand for any other products being manufactured by it. In such case the goodwill which is associated with brand \"Shudh\" for dairy products is not transferred to Q and Q will be required to create distinct goodwill of brand \"Shudh\" for any other product or service like Restaurant wherein Q proposes to use this brand.). In many jurisdictions like United States, assignment of mark without goodwill is not allowed at all. India on the other hand allows assignment without goodwill.
- Restriction on assignment that results in the creation of exclusive rights in more than one persons with respect to the same goods or services, or for same description of goods or services or such goods or services as associated with each other.
- Restriction on assignment that results in different people using the trademark in different parts of the country simultaneously.
What is Trademark Licensing?
The licensing of a mark is to allow others to use the mark without assigning the ownership and the same may be done for all or some of the goods and services covered. The Trademarks Act does not mention the term \'License\', the concept under the Act is mentioned as that of a \'Registered User\'. Trademark licensing is advantageous to both the parties. While the licensor enjoys its rights to the mark by getting the royalties for its use, the licensee is able to expand its market operations by using the brand and developing its reputation. In case of Licensing, the licensor is open to license the rights over the trademark in manner it may like. The Licensor can restrict the rights of the licensee in a trademark or brand with respect to the products or services wherein the licensee can use such brand, with respect to time for which it can use such mark, with respect to area within which it can use such mark etc.
What is Trademark Rectification or Cancellation?
Trademark Rectification or trademark cancellation refers to the process through which a person applies for removal of a registered trademark from the Register of Trademarks. An aggrieved person can apply for trademark rectification/ cancellation on the grounds of contravention or failure to observe a condition of the trade mark already entered in the Register or an error in registering the trade mark. Section 57 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 provides for the grounds for Rectification of the Register. An application for rectification or cancellation of a trademark can also be filed on the grounds of non-use of the trademark for a prescribed period of time after the registration of the trademark. An application for rectification of a registered trade mark is required to be filed before the same Trade Marks Registry where the application for its registration was filed.
Grounds for Trademark Rectification in IndiaSection 57 of the Indian Trade Marks Act, 1999 (hereinafter referred to as \"Act\") provides for the grounds for Rectification of the Register:
- Clauses (1) and (2) of Section 57 of the Act provides that when any person aggrieved of any entry in the Register of Trade Marks makes an application to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, the Tribunal may take such steps for cancellation or variation of the registration of the trade mark on the ground of any contravention or failure to observe a condition. The right to file an application for rectification under Section 57 is a statutory right conferred upon a party who is aggrieved by an entry made in the Register. The said right is circumscribed by certain requirements such as:
- Contravention or failure to observe a condition entered in the Register in relation to the registration of the mark; (Section 57(1)).
- The Register suffers from the absence or omission of an entry e.g. a disclaimer, a condition or a limitation on the registered mark; (Section 57(2)).
- The entry made in the Register was made without any sufficient cause i.e. registration was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation of facts or the mark registered was similar to an already registered mark, etc. (Section 57(2)).
- Error or defect in any entry made in the Register (Section 57(2)).
- The entered mark was wrongly remaining on the Register i.e. it is contrary to some of the provisions of the Act or is likely to cause confusion amongst the public and trade; e.g. The mark is in contravention of Sections 9 and 11 of the Act (Section 57(2)).
- The renewal fee has not been paid.
- Clause (4) of Section 57 provides that the Tribunal i.e. the Registrar or the Appellate Board, after giving a notice as well as an opportunity of being heard to the concerned parties, may either cancel, vary, make or remove the entry in question.
- Under Section 31(1) of the Act the original registration of the trade mark shall be prima facie evidence of the validity of the mark in all legal proceedings relating to a trade mark (including in an application under section 57)
- An application for rectification of a registered trade mark is required to be filed before the same Trade Marks Registry where the application for its registration was filed. The procedure before the Registrar is prescribed under Rules 97 to 100 of the Trade Marks Rules, 2002. An application under Section 57 is to be made in duplicate on Form TM-O (in the case of a collective mark or a certification mark). The application is to be accompanied by a statement of case, setting out the nature of the Applicant\'s interest, facts upon which the case is based and the relief that is sought.
- Although the Registrar of Trademarks is empowered to hear rectification petitions against registered trademarks, in cases where an infringement suit is pending before a civil court and where the defendant in the suit is contesting the validity of the plaintiff\'s trade mark, the power to hear applications for rectification of such trademarks vests only with IPAB and not with the Registrar.
Trademark classes and their Classification in India?
According to the NICE classification, the trademark is classified into 45 categories. Among this, 34 classes represents goods and 11 represents services. Since each class shows a unique category of goods and services, so you should choose the right class for your trademark. The process is carried out, once you select the category/class for your goods/services.
Classification of goods
- In the case of finished goods, it is classified according to it’s purpose or function. If the function is not mentioned, then the user can classify it by analogy with other comparable finished products (mentioned in the alphabetical list). And even if this is not possible, then an applicant can classify on the basis of the material of which the product is made or it’s mode of operation.
- In the case of multi-purpose finished goods, it could be classified on the basis of any of it’s functions. If the function is not mentioned, then it could be classified on the basis of the material of which the product is made or it’s mode of operation.
- In the case of raw materials, whether unworked/semi-worked, they are classified on the basis of the material they consist of.
- In case a product is made using different materials, then it is classified on the basis of the material that predominates.
- Any good that forms part of another product is in principle classified in the same class as that product only when the same type of goods cannot normally be used for another purpose. In any other case, the first point mentioned above applies.
Classification of services
- The principal basis on which the services are classified is according to the branches of activities specified in the headings of the service classes and in their explanatory notes. And if this is not the case, then this is done using other services mentioned in the Alphabetical List.
- In the case of any rental services, the classification is in the same class as the ‘services provided by means of rented objects’.
- Any service that provides advice, information, or consultation is classified in the same class as in the case of matter of the advice, information, or consultation.
|Classes||Category of trademarks|
|Class 1||Any kind of Chemicals that are used in Industries, science or photography, even chemicals used in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, also the adhesives used in Industry, unprocessed plastics, chemical substances involved inedible substances.|
|Class 2||Any kind of paints or varnishes, any preservative used against rust and damage of wood, metals used in foil and powder form used by painters, decorators or printers, even mordant and colorants|
|Class 3||Substances used in laundry, also cleaning and polishing; and has chemical applications, soaps, perfumes, oils, any kind of cosmetics|
|Class 4||All industrial greases and oils, any kind of lubricants, wetting or binding compositions, all fuels and candles and wicks.|
|Class 5||Medical preparations (Veterinary and Pharmaceutical, including sanitary preparations also, any dietetic substance), baby food, plasters, dressing material, disinfectants, dental wax, preparations to destroy vermin.|
|Class 6||Common Metals and alloys, any material used for metal building; non-electric cables and wires (all of the common metals), pipes and tubes, and other small metal hardware, also ones are included|
|Class 7||Machines and their tools, motors or engines (land vehicles not included), incubators (for eggs), and agriculture machines (hand-operated not included).|
|Class 8||Hand tools, cutlery, razors, and sidearms.|
|Class 9||Any instrument and apparatus used in science, navigation, Photography, Cinematography, optics, weights and measurements, signals, supervision, life-saving and/or teaching, also conducting, transforming, switching, regulating, transmitting or reproduction of sound or images; any kind of magnetic data carriers or recording discs, vending machines(automatic) and any coin-operated apparatus; computers, cash registers, calculating machines and fire-extinguishing apparatus.|
|Class 10||Any kind of medical apparatus including surgical, dental and veterinary instruments and apparatus, artificial limbs or eyes or teeth; Orthopedic articles also included.|
|Class 11||Any lighting, steam generating, heating, drying, cooking, refrigerating, ventilating, sanitary or water supply related appliances and apparatus.|
|Class 12||Vehicles and apparatus for locomotion (in/by land, air or water)|
|Class 13||Fireworks, Firearms, Explosives, and ammunition (also projectiles).|
|Class 14||Any precious metal and its alloy and any goods made of that precious metal or even coated with, jewels and ornaments and precious stones; also chronometric instruments.|
|Class 15||Any Musical Instrument|
|Class 16||Cardboard and paper; any goods made from them; printed matter, photographs and all stationary given that they are not included in any other classes, adhesives (at the household level), paintbrushes, office requisites; teaching material (excluding any kind of apparatus), printing blocks and plastic material for packaging.|
|Class 17||Rubber, mica, gutta-percha, asbestos, gum, and any goods made from these, packing, insulating and stopping materials, extruded plastics, pipes (flexible and not made up of metals).|
|Class 18||Leather any kind of its limitation, any goods from this material, trunks, hides, animal skins, and traveling bags; parasols, umbrellas, and walking sticks also harness and whips.|
|Class 19||Non- metallic building materials, rigid pipes again non-metallic and used for building purposes; bitumen, asphalt, and pitch; monuments, not of metal.|
|Class 20||Mirrors, furniture, picture frames; any goods of wood, reed, cork, wicker, cane, bone, horn, whalebone, ivory, amber, shell, meerschaum, mother-of-pearl or any kind of their substitutes, also plastics given that they are not included in any other class.|
|Class 21||Household utensils and containers (including kitchen), sponges and combs; brushes(excluding paint brushes) and materials included in their making; steel wool and unprocessed glass, porcelain and glassware; also earthenware.|
|Class 22||“Tents, nets, strings, ropes, tarpaulins, awnings, sacks, sails, bags (which are excluded from other classes); stuffing and padding materials; raw textile materials (fibrous).|
|Class 23||Threads and Yarns (textile use).|
|Class 24||Textile and their goods; bed covers and table covers.|
|Class 25||Footwear, clothing, and headgear.|
|Class 26||Ribbons, Embroidery, Lace, and braid; hooks and buttons, needles and pins; artificial flowers.|
|Class 27||Mats, rugs, carpets and matting, linoleum, and other similar materials used for covering existing floors and also wall-hangings which are non-textile|
|Class 28||Sporting and gymnastic articles; games and any kind of playthings given that they are not included in other classes and also decorations for Christmas Trees.|
|Class 29||Fish, meat, poultry; meat extracts; dried, cooked, frozen edibles (fruits and vegetables), jellies, jams; eggs, milk, and its products, oil (edible).|
|Class 30||“Tea, coffee, rice, sugar, tapioca, artificial coffee, and sago; bread, flour, pastry and confectionery; honey, ices, yeast, treacle, salt, baking powder, mustard, sauces, vinegar, spices, and ice.|
|Class 31||Products from agriculture, forest and horticulture, and grains gave that they are not included in other classes; fresh vegetables and fruits; live animals; seeds; plants and flowers (natural); food product for animals|
|Class 32||Mineral and aerated water; Non-alcoholic drinks and beers; fruit juices and drinks; syrups and preparation for beverages.|
|Class 33||Alcoholic drinks (excluding beers).|
|Class 34||Smoking articles, Tobacco, and matches.|
|Class 35||Business Management; advertising; business administration and other office functions.|
|Class 36||Financial affairs, Insurance; Monetary affairs; real estate affairs.|
|Class 37||Repair, Building construction, Installation Services.|
|Class 39||Packaging and storage of goods; Transport.|
|Class 40||Treatment of Materials.|
|Class 41||Providing training; Entertainment; sporting; Education and other cultural activities.|
|Class 42||Technological and scientific services; industrial analysis and research services; development of computer hardware and software and their design.|
|Class 43||Services related to providing drinks and food or temporary accommodation.|
|Class 44||Any kind of Medical services (including Veterinary, hygienic, and beauty services) both for humans and animals; horticulture, agriculture, and forest services.|
|Class 45||Legal and security services; personal and social services.|